To build safely you must conduct a risk assessment
To commence a building project the first thing to do is the soil profiling test. Soil profiling will give you the idea of the soil layers you want to build on, The properties of the soil will influence your structure either positively or negatively, positively if the properties of the soil is taken into consideration when building the structure, but negatively if the soil properties is not taken into consideration.
The nature of soil will determine the type foundation that will be suitable for the structure and foundation will determine the stability of the structure(building).
Soil profiling is very important before commencing the building,it must be taken into consideration to choose the type of foundation that is suitable for the building.
Sometimes the soil that looks solid and compact on the surface on the surface may have water chamber 10 feet below the surface, soil profiling will reveal this type of soil and suitable foundation will be chosen for such building.
Generally there are two types of foundations which are:
- Shallow foundation
- Deep foundation
Shallow foundations (sometimes called ‘spread footings’) include pads (‘isolated footings’), strip footings and rafts.
Deep foundations include piles, pile walls, diaphragm walls and caissons.
For dry land as revealed by the soil profiling you will need spread footing and stripping foundation, while water logged land will need Raft foundation, Muddy land will need pile foundation.
Below are the pictures of Raft Foundations